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C. Brown on "Creating a positive culture for children"

From the State Bar News, NYSBA's Annual Meeting Edition (March/April 2008), an article by Cailin Brown on the Presidential Summit, am panel, leads the issue (1)

...Experts shared ideas on breaking the cycle for youth at risk,
Cailin Brown reports, "Treating children like adults in the criminal justice system is an antiquated approach in the New York court system, one that needs to be replaced by a more responsive method for dealing with youth who have gone astray."
The panel discussion covered a wide range of the factors and included an impassioned plea by Honorable Michael A. Corriero, for the bar to recognize the injustices that adolescents face in the justice system.
'The law must be repealed and replaced by a law that is more sensitive to developmental realities of children...' The court system criminalizes children as young as 13 for their behavior.

More on a pediatric note, FDA updated its efforts (March, 2008), reporting on the medical, statistical, and clinical pharmacology reviews of pediatric studies conducted in response to a Written Request issued under the BPCA and pediatric assessments conducted under PREA. (2). For example, 2 of the 4 pediatric drug reviews include pediatric drugs used in the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B infections and bipolar mania (aka mixed episodes). The Division of Pediatric Drug Development (DPDD) is part of the Office of Counter-Terrorism and Pediatric Drug Development (OCTAP), in the Office of the Center Director, CDER.(3)
What are we learning? Author Robert M Julien prefaces his 2001 book, " A Primer of Drug Action, A concise non technical guide to the actions, uses, and side effects of psychoactive drugs"in part as follows: there has been "an explosion of knowledge about drugs, about the underlying disorders for which they are used, ...this knowledge is accelerating, and remarkable advances are occurring. Within the last five years, we have witnessed the introduction of totally new classes of drugs for treating schizophrenia, depression and bipolar illness. We have come to recognize the chronic and disabling nature of persistent anxiety and dysthymia. We have watched the explosion in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders of children and adolescents, and we have gained new understanding of the biochemical abnormalities in behavioral and psychological disorders....Finally as our knowledge of molecular biology increases, we are witnessing the identification , sequencing and cloning of drug receptors, processes that will produce the psychotherapeutic drugs of the future. ...
In 1975 when the first editions of A Primer of Drug Action was published, we had few drugs to treat many of the psychological disorders discussed in this ninth edition... Child and adolescent psychopharmacology was embryonic and most of the drugs presented in this book had not been conceived of.. As the 21st century progresses , we will....".

(1) NYSBA State Bar News, March/April 2008, article by Cailin Brown, assistant professor of communications at The College of Saint Rose, http://www.nysba.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=_i_State_Bar_News_i_&Template=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=21&ContentID=9929
(2) "In accordance with section 505A(k)(1) of the Act (Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act of 2007 (BPCA)) and section 505B(h)(1) of the Act (Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2007 (PREA)), as amended by FDAAA (Pub. L. No. 110-85)..." http://www.fda.gov/cder/pediatric/BpcaPrea_full_review.htm
(3) http://www.fda.gov/cder/pediatric/PediatricOrgchart.htm
(4) "A Primer of Drug Action, A concise, nontechnical guide to the actions, uses, and side effects of psychoactive drugs", Ninth edition by Robert M. Julien, MD. PHS, St Vincent Hospital and Medical Center, Portland Oregon. (Worth Publishers, 2001)

Just to get a feeling for the scope of scientific inquiry in this area of research, A Primer's includes a very readable introduction to psychopharmacology (how drugs interact with the body and the brain), a guide to drugs that depress brain functions (sedative-hypnotic drugs), drugs that stimulate brain function (psychostimulants), drugs that relieve pain (opiod and nonopioid analgesics), drugs that possess hallocinogenic or psychedelic properties, drug abuse, drugs used to treat depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and parkinsonism. Other important subjects covered include a focus on the integration of drugs and psychological therapies in treating mental and behavior disorder and herbal medicines used in the treatment of psychological disorders.
The 10th edition of A Primer has an entire chapter on children and adolescents, consolidating and updating coverage of this subject which was treated in part in the particular chapter in the prior edition.

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